Tissue CO2 Clinical References

Jin, et al “Decreases in Organ Blood Flows Associated with Increases in Sublingual PCO2 During Hemorrhagic Shock”; Journal American Physiological Society 1998; 8750-7587: 2360-4

Pernat, et al “Effects of Hyper- and Hypoventilation on Gastric and Sublingual PCO2”; Journal American Physiological Society 1999; 8750-7587: 933-937

Povoas, et al “Comparisons Between Sublingual and Gastric Tonometry During Hemorrhagic Shock”; CHEST 2000; 118:1127-1132

Sproesser, et al “Capnometry for Diagnosing and Monitoring Cardiopulmonary Crises”; Resident & Staff Physician 2000; 46:17-27

Weil, “Tissue PCO2 as Universal Marker of Tissue Hypoxia”; Minerva Anestesiologica 2000; 66:343-7

Yee & Susanto, “Sublingual Capnometry: In Search of its Holy Grail”; CHEST 2000; 118:894-96

Dantzker, “Monitoring Tissue Oxygenation: The Quest Continues” CHEST 2001; 120:701-2

Marik, “Sublingual Capnography: A Clinical Validation Study”; CHEST 2001; 120:923-37

Baron, et al “Diagnostic Utility of Sublingual PCO2 for Detecting Hemorrhage in Patients with Penetrating Trauma”; Abstract SAEM 2002 (361)

De Backer, et al “Microvascular Blood Flow is Altered in Patients with Sepsis”; American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002; 166:98-104

Creteur, et al “Sublingual PCO2 Monitoring in Patients with Septic Shock”; Presentation #65 Critical Care Congress 2003

Laine, et al “Regional vs. Global Oxygenation Following Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation”; Abstract #205 Critical Care Congress 2003

Marik, “Sublingual Capnometry versus Traditional Markers of Tissue Oxygenation in Critically Ill Patients”; Critical Care Medicine 2003; Vol 31, No 3:818-22

Verdant, et al “Sublingual Microcirculation Reflects Intestinal Mucosal Microcirculation in Sepsis: A Quantitative Analysis”; Oral Abstract #191 Critical Care Congress 2003

Ward, et al “Performance of Noninvasive Tissue Oxygenation Indicators in Detecting Shock Due to Hemorrhage”; Oral Abstract #92 Critical Care Congress 2003

Grindlinger, et al “Use of the Esophageal Doppler and Sublingual Capnometer in the Hemodynamic Assessment of Mechanically Ventilated Surgical Patients”; Poster Presentation CHEST 2004

Clavijo-Alvarez JA, Sims CA, Soller B, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC. Monitoring skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue acid-base status and oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Shock 24(3): 270-275, 2005.

Creteur, et al “Sublingual capnometry tracks microcirculatory changes in septic patients”; Intensive Care Medicine 2006; 32: 516-523

Baron, et al “Sublingual Capnometry for Rapid Determination of the Severity of Hemorrhagic Shock”; Journal of Trauma 2007; 62:120-124

Zenker S, Polanco PM, Kim HK, Torres A, Vodovotz Y, Clermont G, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC. Threshold area over the curve (TAOC) of spectrometric tissue oxygen saturation as an indicator of volume resuscitability in an acute porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma 63(3): 573-580, 2007. (PMID: 18073603)

Clavijo JA, van Bastelaar J, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC, Mayevsky A. Minimally invasive real time monitoring of mitochondrial NADH and tissue blood flow in the urethral wall during hemorrhage and resuscitation. Med Sci Monit 14(9): BR175-BR182, 2008. (PMID: 18758409)

Jones, et al “Sepsis-Induced Tissue Hypoperfusion”; Crit Care Clin 25 (2009): 769-779

Namas N, Ghuma A, Torres A, Polanco P, Gomez H, Barclay D, Gordon L, Zenker S, Hermus L, Zamora R, Rosengart MR, Clermont G, Peitzman A, Billiar TR, Ochoa J, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC, Vodovotz Y. An adequately robust early TNF-a response is a hallmark of survival following trauma/hemorrhage. PLos One Medicine 4(12): e8406, 2009. (PMID: 20027315: PMCID: PMC26794373)

Gómez H, Mesquida J, Hermus L, Polanco P, Kim HK, Zenker S, Torres A, Namas R, Gordon L, Severyn D, Vodovotz Y, Clermont G, Puyana JC, Pinsky MR. Physiologic responses to severe hemorrhagic shock and the genesis of cardiovascular collapse: Can irreversibility be anticipated? J Surg Trauma 178(1): 358-369, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.12.015. (PMID: 22475354)

Xu, “Fluid Resuscitation Guided by Sublingual PCO2 During Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine”, Poster Presentation AHA 2012

Xu, et al “Fluid Resuscitation Guided by Sublingual Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide During Hemorrhagic Shock in a Porcine Model”; Shock Society 2013

Pierre-Eric Danin • Nils Siegenthaler • Jacques Levraut • Gilles Bernardin • Jean Dellamonica • Karim Bendjelid “Monitoring CO2 in shock states Pierre-Eric Danin” • Received: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published online: 13 November 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Haugaa H, Gomez H, Maberry DR, Holder A, Ogundele O, Botero AM, Escobar D, Tønnessen TI, Airgood H, Dezfulian C, Kenney E, Shiva S, Zuckerbraun BS, Pinsky MR. Effects of inhalation of low dose nitrite or carbon monoxide on post-reperfusion mitochondrial function and tissue injury in hemorrhagic shock swine. Crit Care 19(1):184, 2015. (PMID: 25899004)

Review articles and book chapters

Pinsky MR. Both perfusion pressure and flow are essential for adequate resuscitation. Sepsis 4(2): 143-146, 2001.

Pinsky MR. Minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring and goal-directed therapy. in: Lumb P. (ed.) Special issue: Critical Care Medicine. Seminar Anesth Periop Med Pain 24 (1): 4-8, 2005.

Pinsky MR. Tissue perfusion and cardiorespiratory diagnostic technologies. in: Fink MP, Suter PM & Sibbald WJ (eds.) My ICU in 10 years. Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 43:153-164, 2005.

Pinsky MR. Beyond global oxygen supply-demand relations: In search of measures of dysoxia. in: Pinsky MR, Brochard L, Mancebo J, Antonelli (eds.) Applied Physiology in Intensive Care Medicine 2: Physiological Reviews and Editorials, 3rd edition, 2012, Springer, Berlin pp. 319-322.

Pinsky MR. Chapter 4, Resuscitation endpoints: Which one is optimal? in: Bihorac A, Greenberg S (eds.) Current Concepts in Adult Critical Care, SCCM publication, 2014, pp. 33-51.

Monnet X, Pinsky MR. Chapter 19. What are the best tools to optimize the circulation? in: Deutchman C &  Neligan PJ (eds.). Evidence-based practice of critical care. 2nd edition. Elsevier Philadelphia 2016, pp 99-103.


Kellum JA, Kramer DJ, Pinsky MR.  Strong Ion Gap: A Methodology for Exploring Unexplained Anions.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149 (4): A940, 1994.

JA, Bellomo R, Kramer DJ, Pinsky MR. Etiology of Metabolic Acidosis During Saline Resuscitation in Endotoxemia.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(4): A318, 1995.

Torres A, Patricio P, , Hyung K,  Clermont G, Pinsky MR, Vodovotz Y, Puyana JC. Modeling damage in irreversible hemorrhagic shock, 4th annual meeting, ICCIA, Cologne, Germany, 2005.

Polanco PM, Torres A, Kim HK, Rosengart MR, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC. Sublingual pCO2 as a marker of progressive tissue dysfunction and mortality in a model of circulatory collapse in severe hemorrhage. J Surg Res 130 (2):279-280, 2006.

Zenker S, Polanco PM, Torres A, Vodovotz Y, Puyana JC, Pinsky MR, Clermont G. Continuous sublingual pCO2 as a rapid indicator of changes in tissue perfusion in hemorrhagic shock: an experimental study. Shock 25 (6) Supplement 1:57, 2006.

Zenker S, Polanco PM, Kim HK, Torres A, Vodovotz Y, Clermont G, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC. Threshold area over the curve (TAOC) of spectrometric tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) as an indicator of volume resuscitability in an acute porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Eastern Assoc Surg Trauma (EAST) 2007.

 Polanco PM,  Zenker S, Kim H, Torres A, Vodovotz Y, Clermont G, Pinsky MR, Puyana JC. Correlation of sublingual PCO2 with base excess and lactate during severe hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Eastern Assoc Surg Trauma (EAST) 2007.

Torres A, Polanco P, Kim HK, Pinsky MR, Bartels J, Zenker S, Clermont G, Puyana JC, Bentley TB; Vodovotz Y. PCO2 as surrogate for mathematically-modeled tissue dysfunction/damage during a non-lethal hemorrhagic shock model in Mice. J Crit Care 21 (4):352-353, 2007.

Haugaa H, Gomez H, Escobar D, Ogundele O, Al-Jaghbeer M, Holder A, Quintero AMB, Gordon L, Maberry DR, Tonnessen TI, Zuckerbraun B, Pinsky MR. Metabolic alterations in liver, gut, tongue and muscle in the course of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in pigs. 2013 Fink Scholar Day.

Haugaa H, Gomez H, Maberry D, Holder A, Ogundele O, Botero A, Escobar D, Gordon L, Tonnessen T, Zuckerbraun B, Pinsky MR. Attenuation of ischemia reperfusion injury in swine resuscitated for hemorrhagic shock by low dose inhaled nitrite or carbon dioxide. Crit Care 18(Suppl 1): P119, 2014.

Mahajan RK, Peter JV, John G, Graham P, Shoma VR, Pinsky MR. Patterns of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), lactate and veno-arterial CO2 difference (vaCO2) in patients with shock and their association with outcome. Indian Society for Critical Care Medicine, Jaipur, India, February 2014.

Other Publications

(including editorials, commentaries, correspondence and book reviews):

Pinsky MR. Beyond Global Oxygen Supply-Demand Relations: In Search of Measures of Dysoxia [Editorial].  Intensive Care Med 20(1): 1-3, 1994. (PMID: 8163751)

Puyana JC, Pinsky MR. Searching for non-invasive markers of tissue hypoxia. [Editorial] Crit Care 11:116-117, 2007. (PMID: 17331268; PMCID: PMC2151870)

Pinsky MR. At the threshold of non-invasive functional hemodynamic monitoring. [Editorial] Anesthesiology 106: 1085-1085, 2007.

Vallet B, Pinsky MR, Cecconi M. Resuscitation of patients with septic shock: please “Mind the Gap”! [Editorial] Intensive Care Med 39(9):1653-1655, 2013. (PMID: 23812340; PMCID: PMC3732761)

Pinsky MR. It is amazing what you can see if you look. [Editorial] J Clin Comput Monit 28(3): 221-222, 2014. (PMID: 24162804, PMCID: PMC4000748; NIHMSID: 535306)